We did the last  session with Anna today. We worked on distractions from other dogs walking by, and leash walking. Again, Anna’s listening and advising skills are excellent and practical. They are so helpful.

We were referred to Dog Gone Problems by our vet. We had had our 16 week old puppy for a couple of weeks and we were pretty overwhelmed with his behavior (rescue puppy from the street).  He was too old for Puppy Kindergarten class, but we did Elementary and High school, along with one session with Anna before, and I believe three sessions with Anna after the formal classes finished.

We are really appreciative of the training DGP provided for Peeve. He is such a happy dog now that we can communicate better with each other. Thanks.

A Paulman - Omaha, Ne

We really loved our puppy class with David! We took our GSP puppy to it and learned a lot. Would highly recommend for anyone with a puppy, regardless if you have owned dogs in the past. The classes teach you how to train your dog with positive reinforcement and how important early socialization and certain skills are for your puppy. It really helped us learn how to train our puppy.

We actually have 2 older dogs and wish we could have started them in the puppy training class! We took a lot away from the class and David was an awesome instructor!! The end of the class time was for socialization and was great for the puppies to do, and fun for us to watch!

Amanda Gould - Omaha, Ne

Before deciding on David, we researched every dog trainer/school/boarding in LA. It’s expensive and anyone who promises to fix your dog’s problems through weekly training is lying.

We sent our dog Spike to board and train, spent a ton of money and it didn’t help with his aggression. He knew how to sit on command, but if you’re looking for David’s help, then your dog has issues a regular trainer can’t fix.


First of all, he’s not a dog “trainer,” he’s a behaviorist, which up until recently we had no idea there was such a thing. You fill out the form online and basically tell him what your issues are. David calls you and spends a good amount of time listening to what it is you’re trying to accomplish (our first call was over an hr and this is even before you hire him).

He comes to your house so that he can see your dog in it’s environment. This is so important. It’s one session. If your dog has major issues, maybe you need more than one, but he tells you that one session is enough for most dogs. The one session might seem expensive, but it’s only ONE session that gives you the tools to fix every one of your dog’s problems.

David makes a video of everything you cover in your session so that you have a reference later. This is great because you can always check back to the video instead of trying to remember everything he goes over. Also, the session is LONG, so without the video you wouldn’t remember everything he goes over.

Perhaps the most important for us and the main reason we chose David was because he believes in positive reinforcement. I researched so many trainers in LA and read horror stories on yelp and google about their methods. Scaring your dog into submission doesn’t work and is just stupid and cruel. The Dog Whisperer is NOT what you want for your dog.

David believes in rules, in rewarding behavior you want, and in getting to the root of the problem. Why is my dog aggressive? David can help you figure that out and fix it!!


He’s booked up. We had to wait almost 2-3 months for our appointment.

It might seem expensive for one session, but the fact that he can go over all your issues in one session is actually cheaper than any other route.

He doesn’t offer a puppy class in LA. We got a new puppy and are super disappointed that he doesn’t have one here. David, start a puppy school in LA PLEASE!!!

If you’re looking for someone to come and teach your dog how to sit, this isn’t the guy. If you need major help for your dog, then call David. You won’t regret it.

Peter & Rita Coleman - Los Angeles, Ca

Christina was great!!! After our session, it’s like night and day with our dog and his behavior. Not only that but the puppy / dog introduction was seamless! Thank you!!!

Becky Groves - Omaha, Ne

We had our first two-dog session with David a few days ago, and we are off to a good start. Our dogs were too anxious and rowdy; barking at the doorbell, friendly jumping and lunging at guests; and generally overly excited in many instances.

David’s approach is a positive one and the dog learns to remain in control and respect the human barriers and boundaries that you establish. We are excited to keep this journey going and recognize that it will take work: if you want to succeed with your pet, there is no silver bullet or quick fix. Practice, consistency and a family-wide commitment are necessary. I would highly recommend David and Dog Gone Problems.”

“I reached out to David in order to help me with some training for my foster dog, Roscoe. Roscoe is a sweet boy, but I needed to learn how to teach him manners. He is still a puppy and has puppy traits, so I needed assistance to get him as adoptable as possible. David reached out to me the very next day and we had a nice chat about what exactly I was looking for. Thank God David had an opening the very next week and he came to my home and spent more than 3 hours helping me to address Roscoe’s areas that need improvement. It was so informative since he was not just telling me what to do, but reasons why it helps. It was eye opening (and kind of a rude awakening) that what I do, truly does effect Roscoe.

So, not only was David awesome on the day of our visit, he has proven to be completely available and willing to help even AFTER the session. I can into a situation with Roscoe where I needed to talk to David and he picked up my call immediately and took as much time as I needed to talk it through. It was so incredibly comforting to know he was not just ghosting me after our session.

I am still working with Roscoe, but am already seeing improvements. I know I need to work on being consistent in what I do, but I know if I have any questions, David will be right there to help. I could not recommend him enough. I will keep everyone posted on Roscoe’s improvement!”

Kimberly - Los Angeles, CA - https://www.facebook.com/kimberly.jacobs.5

“We were referred to David by our neighbor and at first I was skeptical. Our dogs weren’t a major problem, “why spend the money?” I thought to myself. The techniques we learned seemed intuitive and while the session was in progress, I wondered if it was even necessary.

Now that time has passed I can unequivocally say, it was worth every penny.

Our dogs are more disciplined and demonstrating behavior I didn’t even know I wanted to see from them. I’d never considered a dogs self esteem before, but nurture it and before you know it, you’ll have a confident pup who’s right in step with what you expect. David helped us in areas we didn’t even know we needed help with. 

BIG eye opener. I’ll for sure refer him to anyone with willful pets.

Thanks David!”

David gave us simple, easy to implement tactics that we saw improvement in our dog from within days. The awareness to our own signals and what we do to confuse our dog is invaluable in its own right.

Highly recommend if you are struggling with any issues with your pup!

Gary, Santa Monica CA - https://www.facebook.com/gary.deagle

“David was like a miracle worker for our dogs!! After our session we successfully got them out of the bed and sleeping in their own beds and not waking through the night. They are noticeable calmer and well behaved now and David reallly gave us the tools to be the dog owners we’d like to be, which makes for much better behaved pups. Would highly recommend him to anyone!”

“David is being a great help with all my rescue Dalmatians!”

“Dave needs to be on TV. You are in the right place to make it happen. Top Notch!!”

“David provides great and easy solutions to help your dog, and more importantly, to help you help your dog. Couldn’t recommend him enough.”

“Really great training. Helped me so much understand my Cashew and communicate with her. Takes away all the frustration.”

An amazing, positive experience for both myself and my dog Stanton. In the few days since our session, my pooch has made impressive progress with the techniques demonstrated and thoughts shared. Couldn’t be happier. And neither could my dog.

“We had a session a week ago. Things have been going great. He was even great with helping our son understand how and why it is important to follow the new rules. We are excited with all the changes and being able to provide our pups with an even brighter future.”

“Dave helped us gain control of our two young labs, set boundaries, and teach them ways to improve impulse control. Extremely helpful and we’re excited to use our new skills as dog owners! Highly recommend!”

“Dave is the best! I recommend him to anyone with a puppy or dog. His expertise will help you turn things around and be able to fully enjoy your pet.”

“We learned so much from our training session with David! My Siberian husky Apollo was having some issues with leadership in our house, especially with listening to commands. I have already started to see some changes in Apollo’s behavior in the past week. He respects us much more now with structure and rules added to the household. David is also there to help even after the session ends, which is a great comfort to us should we need more assistance.”

“Our training session was very successful. I was happy with the way Ginger responded to her training. Ginger was having trouble with the stairs on the deck and after a few attempts she was going up the steps on her own. I like the suggestion he made about meal time. Also nice to know he is a phone call or text away with any concerns/questions.”

“We have a German Shepherd puppy and want to make sure she is trained to be a well behaved dog. Less than a week after David’s visit we are already noticing great improvements. He was prompt, stayed and answered all of our questions, and has followed up twice to see how things were going. Very knowledgeable and professional. I would highly recommend to anyone looking for help with their dog(s).”

“We have noticed monumental success in just a few days time! I can’t even begin to express how valuable our session with David was for Indie and our family.

Indie was a rescue that suffered from severe separation anxiety which resulted in some tooth loss due to the distress of having us gone, as well as charging to answer the door. We are less than a week out after our session and Indie has done a 180. I can not believe what a difference it made to have David help us for a just few hours!

I would absolutely recommend him to anyone having issues with their pets—PICK UP THE PHONE!”

“Already making some improvements after a session with David. Looking forward to implementing all the suggestions!”

“David’s help has been incredible already! We contacted him because one of our dogs started marking in the house when our one year old daughter became mobile. It’s only been a couple days of working on the tips he gave us, but already there has been no marking in the house! We are also very thankful for the tips he gave to help when people to come the door.

The session is on the expensive side, but especially with his willingness and eagerness to take texts and phone calls afterward, it is VERY worth it! If you’re considering calling David, pick up the phone now!!”

“Excellent teaching and a lot of fun. Highly recommend.”

“David is amazing. Totally worth the money. David has a way of explaining things that makes sense. He tells you what the dog is thinking which really helps shape our behavior. Just a great guy who does and incredible job. Tank and I are forever grateful.”

“A great guy and he knows what he is talking about and helps a lot. Well worth it.”

“3 days after having Dog Gone Problems come over and both of our dogs are already behaving better as we have started implementing his help. I would definitely recommend you get in touch about how he can help your pups out!”

“Excelllent service tailored specifically to our needs. My wife and icon are newlyweds and are expecting our first child soon. My wife’s dog has been with her for about 10 years, so you can only imagine how protective this Toy Poodle is against a new guy. No problem seemed too big to solve and the offer of constant support even after service made choosing Dog Gone Problems a 5 Star Success!! Thanks again!”

“We’re 5 days after David was here, and we can already get Mr. Zeus to do things he didn’t/wouldn’t do before. He is more responsive to commands, more attentive, and even walked better on his leash. We’ve spent a little time each day working on the drills David taught us. Can’t wait to see what day 30 brings. If you’re having a pup problem, I would highly recommend giving Dog Gone Problems a call. Totally worth it. Thanks David!!”

“David was great to work with! He is available for questions and really wants to help!”

“David is amazing! Worth every penny! He didn’t teach what my dog did wrong, but taught us what we were doing wrong with positive reinforcement!!”

“Dog Gone Problems is absolutely amazing! When I first fostered and then adopted my Malamute, I could not believe the behavior issues! Among other things, he would pee in the house without warning, wouldn’t listen to anything I said, was not remotely kennel trained, dug holes in my carpet, walls, and doors, and tugged so hard that he sprained my wrist on our first walk. I called David and in ONE session, he was able to give me the tools I needed to begin correcting the issues. He was patient and polite, and kept control over the situation the entire time. He didn’t train my dog one word/one use commands, but gave me the knowledge and tools to completely change any behaviors I didn’t like, and reinforce the ones that I did. Over the past 4 years I have been able to use the same tips and tricks on my second dog, and couldn’t be happier with the results! I’ve kept in touch with David, and he’s been able to help with the one off issues that come with having two northern breed dogs. I’m so incredibly grateful for David with Dog Gone Problems, I can’t imagine where I’d be without him!”

“The Dog workshop was great. My dog, who was expelled from obedience school, is already minding much better after only two days! I am awestruck. It was lots of fun too. David is a very good presenter, and Quest is ADORABLE! Brian was wonderful to visit with after the session. All in all, a great experience. May have to repeat it to get even more out of it (my memory is worse than my dog’s!). Highly recommend it!”

“Since David’s session, our boxer’s behavior has improved significantly. He now respects our personal space and is calm and focused on walks. I highly recommend David. His approach to handling dogs works wonders!”

“I learned SO MUCH at his free workshop!! He knows what he is doing! Pretty sure parents could learn a thing or two as well!!”

“David Codr is a fabulous dog behaviorist. He always uses positive reinforcement, which is the only way to train new behavior. Thanks David for all your help.”

“David was excellent to work with and our German shepherd responded to his techniques very quickly. The whole experience was enjoyable and educational for both us and our dog.
We’re very pleased!”

“David is amazing! Truly helped our rescue dog (more accurately helped us) with walking on the leash, separation anxiety & socializing. He has great follow thru & truly cares about his clients (4 legged & 2 legged)!”

“I have and will continue to highly recommend David with Dog Gone Problems. He has taught me so much in terms of dog behavior and it really has benefited the almost 30 dogs that I have fostered through local dog rescue organizations in the past 3 years. His willingness to help rescues with rehabilitation on these precious creatures speaks volumes and his help has made HUGE differences in the lives of these dogs AND their humans.

Unlike other behaviorists and trainers out there, David spends TIME. He dedicates hours, coming to your environment and giving one-on-one, customized help specifically for your situation.”

“I have worked with David and Dog Gone Problems with my last couple of dogs. He is very patient and compassionate with dogs and their guardians. His knowledge is incredible and he is ALWAYS available to support his clients with follow up or encouragement. Last year I partnered with David to find a rescue dog to adopt. He was very careful to match me with a dog that was a perfect for both myself and the dog. I would never recommend anyone else when it comes to dog behavior. His level of commitment to his clients (both human and four-legged furry ones) is unsurpassed. Thank you David for being amazing at what you do!!”

“David is a miracle worker! My 3 dogs are so much calmer now that I know what I was doing wrong!”

Many of my clients have heard me talk about “Doggie David” aka “the dog whisperer” Many of you have even used him with your own dog!

I will never forget the phone call I got two years ago this April! I was in Florida sitting with my sister at her final OBGYN apt! Chris called me and told me it was either him or the dogs! He had been taking care of them that week and was beyond fed up with all the accidents in the house! He told me that I had one week to find them a new home or he was out! In his defense the dogs were 2 and 3 and they would have multiple accidents a day!

I remember sitting in the waiting room getting on Google and searching for a dog trainer. I was trying to fight back the tears because I could tell Chris was very serious! He was done!!!! I found David Codr with Dog Gone Problems! I sat there in the waiting room reading review after review thinking Omgosh in need him!!!!

I sent him a e mail BEGGING for his help! When he contacted me back he told me he was booked out about a month and a half but due to the urgency of my husband being very serious about getting rid of the dogs in a week he was willing to come over on Sunday (his day off) to help us!!!

I’m telling you what I would of never know that 2.5 hour apt would of changed our lives so much! I write this today because last night I reached out to David feeling exhausted defeated and overwhelmed! He once again took time out of his evening to tell me step-by-step everything we needed to do for Griff to have a smooth fearless transition to the kennel!

Last night we got his pen set up just as David told us to. It was heaven!!!! Griff whined a little off and on but with in 20 min he was passed out!! I caught myself throughout the night checking in on him via our security camera! No whining no crying just a passed out sweet puppy!

I can not speak more highly of David and his techniques. It doesn’t matter the age of your dog if you are having behavioral issues of any kind with your dog do yourself a favor and give David a call!!! Thanks again David we look forward to puppy class in April.

Thank you so much for our wonderful session yesterday. You made it seem easy to get our two dogs to obey your commands and stop barking and being aggressive. But most impressive, we were able to follow your instructions and get the same results on our own!

Your claim that we can have a well-behaved dog “today”, is absolutely true. Thank you again.

Alice, Marina del Rey CA

David, thank you, thank you, thank you for your help with Fred! I cannot tell you how much I appreciate all of the time you spent at my house, teaching me how to read Fred’s signals and help him overcome his anxiety. I cannot recommend you highly enough to anyone who is looking for assistance with their dog.

“I have never been so impressed with any service IN MY LIFE as I was with what David did with our dogs and what he taught us. He uses common sense and dog logic to teach owners how to properly communicate with their dogs. Once I finally decided to get strict on the rules and techniques David taught us, I began to see almost immediate changes in our dogs. We went from having a high-strung, high-stress, at times out-of-control 100 lb German Shepherd to a dog who listens immediately and respects us – something I truthfully never thought would happen.

I really expected David to tell us our dog was a lost cause, and I sometimes still can’t believe the change! I finally feel like I have control and authority with our dogs. I constantly tell people about David and would absolutely recommend him to anyone with even the slightest issue with their dog. He trains owners on how to train their dogs. I can’t gush about him enough. His expertise is absolutely invaluable – calling him was one of the best decisions my husband and I have ever made.Thanks again, David!!”

My brother is an 63 year old retired truck driver that takes blood thinners. He has always been a dog person but our dog Minka has been a bit much for him in the past. The last time he came over she gave him a skin tear on his arm from pawing him to pet her. Probably just a scratch for you and I but for him a huge, skin tear.

We always have to sit at the kitchen table so he has a chance to fend her off. Well, when he got here for this visit I told him that I had a dog behavior expert come over. He politely shook his head. I told him that we were going to give her a real test and we went and sat on the couch. I corrected her once and had to stand up once. That’s it!! The pawing, the jumping on the couch….done. She brought her toys to him and put them in his lap…that’s it!

When he was ready to leave he said that he always thought that stuff was kind of bullshit (he talks like a trucker too), but Minka is a new dog and he just couldn’t believe it. We sat outside and she was just as behaved. It takes a lot to impress him with things like this and he was in awe.

Just thought I’d share. If you are in doubt or have questions about getting help from Dog Gone Problems, get in contact with me. We are superfans!

The best dog behaviorist out there! David was super patient, helpful, and is great at what he does. We immediately saw a difference in Zorro’s behavior from the minute that David walked into our home. David stayed longer than he was supposed to. You can tell that he absolutely loves what he does. I highly recommend him.

All I can say is WOW. When I first looked into training for my 2 Boxers I was very hopeless. I knew that we had let their unruly behavior go too far…but after reading some reviews about Dog Gone Problems and David I got a little hopeful. So I figured what the heck, let’s give it a try. Within 30 minutes of our session I was already seeing results in our dogs. He figured out the root problems of our dogs behavior and gave us the training techniques we needed to correct them. We both have very busy schedules but by following David’s plan for us…here we are just 5 days later and our once crazy unruly and demanding dogs are becoming obedient and well behaved pooches. I would recommend David to anyone having behavior issues with their dogs…he is the BEST.

I was truly amazed at how quickly Melman adapted to some of the techniques we were taught. I know this will take time and being consistent but I’m confident we will be able to open our windows this summer and not have a crazy barking dog in front of them! Thanks so much for your help!

This man is amazing. We asked him to come help us. We didn’t know what to do and he was able to keep our family together. THANK YOU so much, our kids dogs are with us 24 7 at work and everything so trust is the most important. David changed things within a few minutes of helping us and didn’t have to hurt my babies! I will never go to a “so called” trainer again! Thank you, you’re priceless.

“David, thanks so much for spending so much time with us and our five dogs. What a difference you have made. More important is that its not the dogs is the humans!!!! Your techniques are easy and results quick. Now if I can just stick to them.Thank you ever so much for your help.”

David is worth every penny. Since his visit, my dogs are already listening better, looking to me for permission before they do anything, and respecting me as the one in charge–not them. I am following up with what he taught me, and the results have been amazing. He makes it look easy–because it actually is (if you use his techniques).

“An update on Piper; we continue to see huge strides forward! She finally has her happy attitude back and a smile on her face most of the time now. Even with all the improvements, we still have a ways to go, but David Codr with Dog Gone Problems, helped us get through some major hurdles to having a happy dog again! Thank you David!”

“So I had Dog Gone Problems come to my house tonight and I have to say that I am so happy with what he taught my family and I about our dogs. I have to say if you are having any dog behavior problems let me tell you this guy can help. I highly recommend.”

My family was so impressed with David and his work with Willow. He even recommended the grandchildren come over while he was there so they could practice the techniques he was teaching the family. He was so patient with us and Willow and did a great job explaining the reasoning for the exercises we were doing with her. Willow responded well and is learning to respect boundaries and all other family members-not just my dad. She even walked nicely on a leash for the first time with my mother. It so wonderful to visit my parents and not get jumped on and scratched!


Hey everyone! I am one of the owners of the beautiful Mya. When we first adopted her we spoiled the heck out of her and she basically ran our household until last night. I read about David for awhile, then we finally decided to give him a shot after my friend at work said he was AMAZING.

During the session David was great with Mya, but also with me. I had a lot of questions and he had a lot of patience with me. He took the time to answer all of our questions and explained the reasoning why we were doing what we were doing.

We worked on quite a few things during the session. Walking Mya used to be stressful because she would literally choke herself. I used the technique Dave taught us on our walk today and it was literally like I walking another dog. Mya has also been going back and forth from the water bowl on her own without drinking it all and without throwing up.

I would recommend David to ANYONE who has a doggie who could use some behavior help!! It was totally worth every dime and Mya is already acting like a different dog! Please feel free to message me if you need a reference or questions about what we thought of Dave’s training. THANK YOU DAVID!

“I have to give a big shout out “Thank You” to David and Dog Gone Problems! David and Farley did an amazing job in the mini boot camp for our dog Mufassa!! We were having aggression problems with food and toys when Nick’s dog Bane came… the two dogs kept fighting and it was scary with the babies in the house… David really whipped Mufassa into shape and helped me understand the signs that dogs give each other… meal time is much happier at our house… and Mufassa is a much better dog to have around! I was actually thinking of re-homing Mufassa because I think the behaviors could be corrected!! Life is not perfect yet… still working on it… but, I can see the light!! Thank you so very much David and Farley… for Kicking Fassa’s little butt into shape!!”

“This may be getting old but, I want to thank you again for your assistance. Rex seems like he is so much happier with the direction and praise we give him. He now gets belly rubs and “youre such a good boy Rexy!” rather then frustrated owners. Even my two year old can get him to play “leave it!” He now behaves so well in the house without using any words. A snap and a “shhh” keep him in line. When guests arrive he waits patiently at the top of the stairs where we allow him to sniff and be curious. His outside behavior is coming along but I am so impressed by the change in just a week and a half. I have and will continue to market your skills to every dog owner I know! Thank you!”

“Hey just a update on monster he is doing great with all of his training and only pulled once on his first long walk of the morning! Which made a world of difference considering he was snatching me and my wife around before you helped us!”

“You did an absolutely amazing job with Sophie and Maggie. Sophie is a different dog!!”

So happy to say David helped me overcome my own fear of not being to help my puppy Toretto who had fear of new people and dogs. We are still working on his shyness but he’s been the greatest sport and is doing great he no longer growls when someone comes near and is acting like a puppy should playful and friendly. Thanks to David 1f642 - Testimonials couldn’t be happier!!!

David was amazing to work with. He took the time with our entire family to make sure we all were comfortable with his techniques and suggestions. There was so much we didn’t know from small things to big routine changes we need to implement. I am not sure who received more training – Buddy or us! As of day two we have found the barking to be dramatically improved and so far the food and bathroom schedule is working. It doesn’t get fixed in one day, but after such a drastic improvement in only a couple days we are very encouraged to do our part and keep working. Thanks David for helping us get rid of our dog gone problems!

David was great in helping us to learn more on how to handle Charlie and methods to improve his behavior. We have been doing the leadership exercise and have seen a difference in Charlie and his respect for us. Taking him on more walks and letting him release more energy in structured activities has gone a long way. Our other dog is happier to have Charlie not bothering him as much. Thanks David for all your help! I would highly recommend him!

David!!!! It’s been just over 24 hours and I’m BLOWN away with the results! Bear has not had 1 single accident and that’s BIG news! Roxy is responding SO well to the authority exercise and laying down after just a few seconds! Both dogs by the 2nd feeding for Roxy and 3rd feeding for bear are not crossing the boundary for eating with out permission and finishing their meal with in 3 min! That blew my mind! I have been working with Sit all day!! Roxy has done better than bear but I’m very hopeful! I have been texting and sending my husband Vidoes all day! I’m eager for him to come home and see the progress in 1 day!!!! I have been raving about you to my neighbors and passing out your info! When I was reading your website I thought yea right!!! This is too good to be true….. But figured what do I have to loose (besides my husband re homing the dog) so I reached out to you! I’m SO glad I did!!! Anyone who is reading this and thinks there is no hope for my dog….. Please give David a call!!! I promise you won’t be sorry!!! I’m forever grateful and can’t wait to post in a month or so with the update! Thanks again!!!!

Thank you David for the assistance in helping make Nuk the well behaved gentlemen that I know he can be. What a amazing difference in a couple of hours, he is a different dog. I would defintley recommend David to any one that is having behavior issues with there dogs. While I know that this a work in process I can definetly see a light at the end of the tunnel. He has started to respond to the corrections to the negative behaviors that he was exhibiting. Thank you again David for all your help in assisting me and Nanuk becoming a more balanced family unit.

Even after just one day, the change in Rocco is amazing. He has always been a good dog, but lacked self-control in certain situations where we hadn’t been clear in setting boundaries with him. After our session with you, the things we learned and practice are paying off in observable ways — even our little one is now able to effectively correct Rocco when needed.

For more testimonials or references, visit my Facebook page.  Most of my clients post under the photo of their dog, so you can contact them directly if you have questions or need a reference.